Water is a free gift from nature, and its importance in daily living cannot be overstated. We all need water to drink, wash, clean, and perform a variety of other tasks, which is why people keep it in tanks, gallons, and other containers. You would be at a disadvantage in Nigeria if you did not have a reliable source of water. It’s no surprise when individuals try drilling a borehole or excavating a well.
While we are not opposed to digging a well, the disadvantages outweigh the benefits when compared to drilling a borehole. For starters, it is more costly, and it is also outdated. We must not forget that the majority of deaths caused by tiny children falling into wells has caused this form of water storage to become extinct.
Water boreholes are bored from a hundred to two hundred feet deep, depending on the location of water below the earth’s surface. The drilling procedure might be costly due to the manpower and equipment required, as labor and electricity to power the drilling equipment are all put together when calculating the monetary expenses.
In Nigeria, the cost of digging a borehole varies on the location with South Eastern states being considerably more expensive to dig boreholes.
Borehole drilling can cost anywhere from 200,000 to 600,000 naira on average, depending on the drilling procedure, location, and manpower required, especially in states like Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, and Ibadan. Drilling a borehole in Nigeria costs between 500,000 and 3,000,000 naira for residents of the southeast states of Anambra, Imo, and Enugu.
An analysis of the costs for a standard borehole
The cost of drilling a borehole is mostly determined by the depth and amount of casing required.
The geology (the type of rock formations that must be drilled through as well as the actual ground conditions) have an impact.
Many people believe that drilling into soft and loose geology is the simplest, but this is not always the case.
Maintaining the borehole open during drilling is one of the most difficult aspects of drilling; this is made even more difficult if the hole is collapsing due to loose and unstable terrain. Drilling, for example, is one approach that may be used to prevent this from happening.
The addition of chemicals and fluids, as well as the placement of a temporary steel casing The cost of a borehole is influenced by all of these considerations.
1. Cost of mobilization to and from site
This is the cost of transporting all drilling equipment from the storage yard to the client’s house or job location. The cost is typically determined by the type of equipment used, whether it is wheeled or tracked, and the distance traveled to reach the job location.
Drilling costs are calculated per meter for various diameters. The borehole is normally bored through solid rock with a wider diameter of approximately 203mm to allow the casing to be placed through the soft top parts and prevent collapse.
The hole is then continued through solid rock with a diameter of 165mm to the desired depth or saturated zone. Although most rock types are drilled at the same pace, quartzite, which is extremely abrasive, is charged at a greater rate because it quickly wears out the drill bit.
Drilling prices in Ado-Ekiti typically range from N8,000 to N12,000 per meter.
2. Borehole casing and gravel packing costs
This is the price per meter for casing supply and installation. The majority of boreholes only require steel casing through the soft weathered overburden (12–24m) to keep the upper sections of the borehole from collapsing.
Some boreholes are drilled through severely weathered rock that goes far deeper than typical. In these sorts of boreholes, screens and casing must be installed from the surface to the hole’s end. In them, we employ PVC casing and screens.
A gravel filter pack is put around the exterior of the screens to keep sand out of the well while allowing water to pass through. For PVC casing and screens, typical expenses are roughly N12, 000 per meter.
3. Installation of a well head
The well head is placed over the borehole’s head to facilitate access and protect the borehole from pollution. To sustain stress, the well head should be composed of reinforced concrete.
The installation would cost roughly N40,000 to complete.
4. The cost of constructing and flushing the borehole
One of the most significant tasks once a borehole has been dug is the development and flushing of the borehole. This process aids in the removal of rock particles that may become lodged in aquifer fissures, preventing water from entering the borehole.
Boreholes that reach water should be developed until they are completely clear of sand.
Borehole development costs around N50,000.
5. Cleaning up the site costs
Borehole drilling is a messy process. All of the soil, mud, and rock pieces that escape through the hole collect on the surface, creating a big mess. The drill cuttings should be cleaned up and removed from the construction site. When the rig leaves the borehole, the final clean-up takes place. Drillers are typically responsible for cleaning up the site.
6. Analysis of water
If the water is to be utilized in the residence, it is advised that a recognized water lab do a potable water analysis of the borehole. It is critical that the water sample be obtained after some pumping time has passed, and that the sample be sent to the lab and tested for pathogens within 6 hours of sampling.
This test will set you back around N120, 000.
7. Pumping systems cost
The cost of supplying, installing, and commissioning a pumping system is mostly determined by the borehole depth, pipe length, volume of water to be pushed, and system pressure requirements.
A typical household water supply pump costs between N850, 000 and N1,500,000.
Drilling a Water Borehole in Nigeria (Four Steps)
So, we all know what a borehole is and where the water comes from, right?
With dams drying up, water prices going up, and people becoming more and more angry, understanding and looking into other sources of water is more important than ever.
For some, the choice to invest in a home water borehole is straightforward; for others, the new procedure is intimidating.
So, how do you go about digging a borehole? We’ll go through everything in detail below.
1. Hydro-geologists site the borehole
The first order of business is to figure out where the water is and how we’re going to get there.
That is why we hire hydro-geologists who examine the geophysical features of the underlying region using a range of borehole drilling technologies.
These are the individuals that assist us in making sure we’re not drilling into natural or man-made risks (pipelines, cables, phone lines, etc.).
2. Drilling and Construction
After hydro-geologists help us set up a path for borehole drilling, we start drilling the borehole.
Unfortunately, it’s not as easy as Moses and the rock, and people think that when a borehole is drilled, an endless supply of water will flow to the surface right away. There are still steps and procedures to follow.
After the borehole has been dug, the unstable portions of the borehole are steel-cased to strengthen the “tube.”
3. Determining the borehole’s yield
An aquifer test is used to figure out how much water comes out of a household water well with the most precision.
Installing a test pump and pumping borehole water for a predetermined set of variables, a set duration at a certain rate, and then measuring the test’s influence on the water level in the borehole are all part of this process.
4. Borehole pumping and piping
The pumping equipment and pipes placed in your new home water borehole will be primarily determined by the borehole’s intended purpose.
In Nigeria, these factors affect the cost of borehole drilling
There are a few elements that go into determining how much it costs to dig a borehole in any part of Nigeria. The type of borehole drilling procedure used, the location, the depth of the water, and the number of feet to be drilled are just a few of the variables to consider. Some of these are highlighted below.
1. The drilling process used
The manual drilling process, which needs the employment of more than ten people to drill the borehole, and the heavy-duty borehole drilling process, which requires the use of a heavy-duty machine and fewer labor forces to accomplish the required target, are the two types of borehole drilling processes.
While most people prefer the manual drilling approach since it is less expensive, it usually takes longer and is slower, particularly when compared to the heavy-duty method. This model will set you back between N120,000 and N300,000.
Although more expensive, heavy-duty drilling is faster and requires fewer people. If you pick this option, it would cost you between N600,000 and N3 million, especially if you rent heavy machine equipment for drilling.
Borehole drilling prices in Nigeria are heavily influenced by location. Some places in Lagos, like Ikorodu, would take N120,000 for the procedure, while more affluent areas, such as Surulere, would charge N500,000. This is also true from one state to the next.
The cost of digging a borehole in Lagos would be vastly different from that in Abuja and other regions of Nigeria.
Considerations when thinking about drilling a borehole
While the convenience of having a borehole in your home seems appealing, there are certain environmental risks associated with the operation. According to research, having too many boreholes in a geographic region increases the likelihood of an earthquake, a natural calamity. This is due to the disturbance of the soil caused by drilling, which involves creating a narrow, deep hole in the ground.
Some parts of the country have public water that is unfit for boiling or drinking. Residents in such places may choose to construct a well or drill a water borehole to alleviate the effects of water scarcity. There are geological businesses that specialize in borehole drilling that you may call for guidance on where the borehole should be drilled.
Also, these companies help with borehole drilling, but they also do underground geological surveys to figure out how the land looks and where to drill for water below.
With rising utility and water expenses, constructing a borehole is quickly becoming a realistic solution for many individuals to receive “cheaper” water. Boreholes can provide a quick return on investment, saving expenses by up to 80% compared to a metered main supply, depending on water demand.
A borehole is a vertical shaft that is drilled into the earth. A borehole may be used for a variety of things, including extracting water or other liquids like natural petroleum or gases like natural gas. This takes us to the study’s goal: to examine borehole drilling procedures, borehole maintenance, drilling difficulties, borehole usage, and borehole sustainability in Ado Ekiti.
The extraction of ground water is a difficult operation that entails employing a drilling rig to dig a small shaft into the earth in order to reach the aquifer. Borehole drilling activities and the use of established borehole systems both have the potential for failure. These failures are caused by a variety of issues, including inadequate borehole maintenance and rehabilitation, a lack of knowledge, bad technology selection, and poor drilling project oversight.
The following measures must be taken to avoid these complications: proper borehole maintenance and rehabilitation, proper pump installation and maintenance, proper supervision of borehole projects, the use of appropriate drilling technology, and standardization of the borehole design and drilling process.
Water is a limited geographical resource that is not always available.
In certain places of the world, this has resulted in a lack of drinkable water. Due to the rising population, economic expansion, and climate change, water scarcity is becoming a global concern. The development of new water sources, as well as conservation measures, should be a major part of every country’s national water strategy.