Selective breeding and keeping livestock are considered to be parts of animal husbandry. The genetic characteristics and behavior of animals are developed further for economic gain through management and care. A significant portion of farmers rely on animal husbandry as their primary source of income.
We receive a wide range of highly nutritious food products from animals. As a result, they need a lot of care and consideration.
Commercial animal breeding is done in order to provide for the increased demand for food. Goat, buffalo, and cow dairy products are excellent sources of protein. Since they give us milk, these creatures are referred to as milch animals.
Animal husbandry is highly valued in Nigeria and is essential to many facets of the country’s economy. Animal husbandry, or the practice of raising cattle for commercial purposes, enhances Nigerians’ quality of life, contributes to environmental sustainability, produces clothing, and stimulates the nation’s economy.
Importance of Animal Husbandry
Animal bones, blood, and excreta are all utilized to make manure. To boost agricultural production and yields, manure is applied to the fields. Additionally, it can be used as floor and wall plaster and as firewood.
Animal waste, including excrement, bones, and blood, is utilized as manure to improve soil fertility in addition to serving as a source of food and clothing. This manure is applied to farms in order to boost agricultural yields and productivity. Additionally, the manure produced by the animal remains and dung is utilized as firewood. As they are put to use, this helps with proper animal waste disposal. Manure improves the soil and fertilizes it to boost harvest output. Cooking is done with the fuel obtained from the manure.
2. Food security is ensured by animal slavery
In Nigeria, animals are raised and bred to produce a wide range of food items. These foods are very nutrient-dense. To accommodate the nation’s enormous need for food, they are raised for commercial use. Animals like goats and cows provide the milk and cheese that we consume. We get milk and other dairy products from raising animals. Along with fish, they also give us meat and eggs. is the practice of raising and breeding animals for use as food. By doing this, hunger and malnutrition are reduced.
Food security is aided by animal husbandry because it produces dairy, meat, eggs, and seafood. Cross-breeding aids in creating breeds of animals that produce a lot of offspring. In turn, productivity rises.
Dairy products Milk, butter, curd, cream, yogurt, and cheese are among the dairy products that are produced as a result of the rearing of animals like cows, sheep, and goats.
Meat is obtained from farm animals and livestock such as pigs, cows, goats, buffaloes, chickens, ducks, oxen, lambs, and turkeys, among others. Hence, animal husbandry, which is the rearing and breeding of animals, also supplies meat. Animals are the main source of meat in Nigeria.
We receive eggs from animal husbandry, which are a good source of protein. Additionally, farm animals, including poultry birds like hens, geese, and ducks, are raised for their eggs.
The majority of the seafood we eat comes from breeding and growing marine animals. Fish, crabs, prawns, crayfish, snails, oysters, lobsters, and other shellfish are examples of this. These aquatic creatures are important providers of protein, fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamin D.
6. Land Management
Sometimes, grazing livestock slows the spread of weeds on agricultural land. Goats and sheep consume the dry plants in locations that are vulnerable to wildfires, lowering the risk of a fire.
The benefit of animal husbandry to land management cannot be over-emphasized. Battle grazes the field to prevent the spread of undesirable vegetation, sometimes known as weeds. Livestock like cows, goats, and sheep eat these plants, such as dry bushes, that are present in places that are vulnerable to wildfire. This action encourages proper land management by lowering the risk of wildlife.
In this sense, livestock are also used to manage and keep an eye on the development of weeds on the ground. Cattle are an essential part of land management when you let them roam free and eat the weeds.
Animal husbandry contributes to the provision of clothing for the populace. Raising livestock and agricultural animals also provides clothing in addition to food. Animals provide the raw materials for clothing, including wool, hide, and skin. In other words, livestock aid in defending people against cold weather as well as other environmental factors.
Leather is produced by processing hide and skin, which is obtained from the hides of animals like camels. Leather is used to make shoes, belts, and jackets made of leather.
Additionally, sheep’s wool is utilized to make shawls and sweaters. Sheep are raised not only for their meat but also for their wool.
Wool and leather are two examples of the textiles or fibers that animals can create. For instance, camels may produce leather while sheep are raised for their leather.
8. Animals help to do work around the farm
Another potential source of animal labor and power is the upbringing and breeding of animals. These animals, such as donkeys, horses, bulls, and others, are employed for military purposes as well as for the transportation of people and goods, for plowing fields, and for other tasks.
Source of employment
Animal farmers and poultry farmers are among the many people that are currently employed in Nigeria’s animal husbandry industry. Regardless of the scale at which these farmers operate, animal husbandry has been a significant source of employment for many Nigerian communities. Since farmers typically rely on their ability to raise animals for a living, this enhances their overall standard of living.
As was already mentioned, when people work in the animal husbandry industry, their standard of living improves since Nigerian butchers, herders, and marketers profit greatly from it.
9. Raw materials for industries
It is well-known that certain raw materials obtained from dead or slaughtered animals, like horns, bones, and animal fat, among others, are used in the pharmaceutical industry as well as other manufacturing industries.
Animal husbandry aids farmers in reducing and preventing uncontrolled breeding. It aids in preventing unchecked reproduction.
10. The National Economy is Boosted by Animal Husbandry
When animal husbandry is practiced commercially, as it typically is, it helps to strengthen and expand the country’s economy. Animal and cattle products are shipped to other nations. This raises the nation’s rate of revenue creation. In a similar vein, the exportation of raw commodities derived from animals results in a significant gain in foreign exchange for the nation.
Nigeria is well-known for exporting skins and hides, as well as Moroccan leather, which is made from the skin of the Red Sokoto goat species.
Types of Animal Husbandry
1. Poultry farming
Raising domesticated birds, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese, for their meat and eggs is a type of animal husbandry. To produce healthy, wholesome food from poultry, large-scale farming is carried out in an atmosphere free of disease. Since animals or birds produce a lot of bodily waste, maintaining sanitation and cleanliness is crucial while raising poultry. Additionally, the feces are utilized to make soil fertilizers or manure. Huge numbers of people can find work in poultry production, which benefits their economy, particularly farmers.
2. Production of milk
It belongs to a category of agriculture where milk is produced over an extended period of time and sold after being processed. By managing dairy animals like sheep, goats, buffaloes, and cows, different products can be produced, including curd, yogurt, cheese, butter, and cream. These livestocks are referred to as milch animals.
For dairy production, healthy animals are chosen, and they undergo routine checks for both their physical and mental health. Animals are milked manually or by machines, then properly preserved so that they can be used industrially and sold.
3. Pisciculture (Aquatic Agriculture)
Pisciculture, aquaculture, or fish farming are different names for aquatic farming, which is one of the main categories of animal husbandry and involves the controlled and enclosed rearing of fish and other marine animals like prawns. It is raised in confined aquatic environments, including ponds, open nets, cages, and tanks. Fast, disease-free upbringing is made possible by it, as is commercial supply.
The two types of fish farming that are currently used are extensive aquaculture and intense aquaculture, where the former is based on local photosynthetic production and the latter is based on an external source of food for aquatic animals.
4. Apiculture (Beekeeping)
The term “apiculture” refers to the activity of raising bees, and it is derived from the Latin word “apis,” which means “bee.” Honey bees must be managed and cared for in order to produce honey and wax. Honey has amazing medicinal powers that help treat coughs, sore throats, digestive issues, ulcers, blood sugar regulation, and ulcers. Apiculture ensures a secure environment for the bees to live and work. Because they help pollinate our food sources, bees are important to us as well. With bee farming in operation, it offers a setting for researching their habitat and behavior.