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GPA is a academic measurement used in grading different levels of educational achievement in courses.

The GPA system is widely used across many secondary schools (See the top 13 and universities in Nigeria (Check out how to calculate GPA in Nigerian Secondary Schools). They are two different types of grading scales used in Nigeria, that is the 5.0 and 4.0 grading scale. In the following sections, we will discuss more on the grading scales, GPA and CGPA.

## What is a GPA and how to calculate it?

GPA, which also means grade point average, is a number that shows how well you did in a particular course. A GPA is one of the most important numbers to keep an eye on while in school. They are about two different GPA scale used today, we have the 4.0 and the 5.0 GPA scale.

This is how it works, in every course, the is a grade giving that is either A-F or 1 – 100. With the grades given in all your courses, a grade point average uses these grades to evaluate the average grade score of your entire course. It puts this average grade score in a 4.0 or 5.0 scale system.

Every grade you receive first comes in a numerical system, a letter-grade system, or a percentage-based system (100, A, or 100%). Each of these grade systems is assigned to a quality point. A quality point is a GPA system of 4.0 or 5.0. This quality point ranges from 0 to 4 or 0 to 5, depending on a school’s choice.

For example, in Nigeria, A and 100 is the highest grade given to and course. A is equal to 4 or 5 or their multiples (8,16) or (10, 15, 20). After taking a few courses, these points are added together and divided by the total amount of credits of all the courses taken.

## What is a CGPA and how to calculate it?

CGPA or Cumulative grade point average is sometimes confused for Overall GPA. This two are different, but both still refer to the average grades of a student. The cumulative graded point average covers a shorter period, like a term or a semester.

Overall GPA covers the entire grade average of a student throughout his entire academic involvement. In simpler terms, an overall GPA is the average of all grades from all the terms or semesters.

## Why would a Secondary school student need to calculate GPA or CGPA?

Almost all high schools use the credit system score. Colleges or universities use this credit system and is a now globally recognized evaluation system used by people to know their academic performance.

Most high schools in Nigeria now engage in the credit system and demand that students have their cumulative averages, this system helps in assessing the overall academic performance of a student during the admission process for colleges.

## How to calulate a GPA and CGPA

To calculate your GPA, you should first know the credit points given to each course. Let’s say you have 3 courses you took, Course A (2 credits), Course B (2 credits), and Course B (3 credits). Your grades for these courses are:

- Course A – (C (C is 2.0 on the GPA scale)
- Course B -(B is 3.0 on the GPA scale)
- Course C -(A is 4.0 on the GPA scale)

Now to get your CGPA from here you

- multiply the grades you took by the number of credits for each course
- Add the results.
- divide this number of grade points by the total number of credits of the courses.

## A Practical Example of calculating GPA and CGPA for 9 WAEC/NECO subjects on a 4.0 scale as well as a 5.0 scale.

**For a 4.0 GPA Scale.**

- Mathematics ( 4 Credit)
- Further Mathematics ( 4 Credit)
- Physics ( 3 Credit)
- Biology ( 3 Credit)
- Chemistry ( 3 Credit)
- English ( 4 Credit)
- Economics ( 2 Credit)
- Introductive Technology ( 1 Credit)
- Computer Science ( 2 Credit)

**Grades for each course in a semester**

- Mathematics – (A is 4.0 on the GPA scale)
- Further Mathematics (C is 3.0 on the GPA scale)
- Physics (C is 3.0 on the GPA scale)
- Biology (C is 2.0 on the GPA scale)
- Chemistry (C is 4.0 on the GPA scale)
- English (C is 4.0 on the GPA scale)
- Economics (C is 2.0 on the GPA scale)
- Introductive Technology (C is 3.0 on the GPA scale)
- Computer Science (C is 4.0 on the GPA scale)

**TO Calculate:**

multiply the grades by the number of credits for each course

- Mathematics = 16
- Further Mathematics = 12
- Physics = 9
- Biology = 6
- Chemistry = 12
- English = 16
- Economics = 4
- Introductive Technology = 3
- Computer Science = 8

Adding all grades, you will get a **Total = 86**

To calculate your average GPA, we divide this number of grade points by the total number of credits of the courses you took

Total number of credits of course taken =** 26**

To calculate the average GPA: **86/26 = 3.30**

If you want to use the **5.0-grade scale**, all you have to do is calculate using the **4.0** grading scale and add **1.0** to the score.

For example, if you have **a 3.5 GPA** calculated in the **4.0** grading scale, converting it to **5.0** add **1.0** to **3.5** you will get **4.5.**

GPA is very important and should be taken very seriously in academics. This is the valuation of performance need for approval in most sectors of the economy.

Abbey Johnson has a Masters degree as an engineer and has over 3 years of teaching and research experience. He is happiest when on a bike and is also interested in electric energy and computer Science.